The territory’s size and location

In 1500, the Inca empire covers a large territory that stretches about 3500 kilometers long and 800 kilometers wide. This territory is a strip of land that runs along the Pacific Ocean and covers part of South America.

Mountains, dense forest and dry regions

The territory of the Incas is difficult to exploit because it contains many high mountains. In fact, the Inca Empire is crossed by the Andes, the largest mountain range in America. On the edge of the ocean, several very dry places make agriculture difficult because of the lack of water. The Incas had to adapt to their environment and use several special techniques for transport and agriculture for example.

Climate and vegetation

The climate is almost always hot, but it varies from region to region, as does the vegetation. In the mountains, the days are hot and the nights are cold. There are not many trees. It is very different from the Amazon forest where it is very hot and humid, and where there are many species of plants.

The Empire

“The Inca Empire began around Lake Titicaca in about 1197. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used conquest and non-violent assimilation to gain a large portion of western South America. Their empire centered on the Andean mountain ranges. It included large parts of what is now EcuadorPeruBoliviaArgentina and Chile.”   (Source:

Author: Alexandre Lanoix


Important concepts and big ideas:

[glossary slug=’adapttotheenvironment’] (Adapt to the climate, territory, region, etc.)
[glossary slug=’resources’]
[glossary slug=’richinresources’]
[glossary slug=’empire’] (Expansive or large Empire)

Quickly check your knowledge: