Note: Based on Tocqueville’s testimony, which elements have changed and which ones are still the same today?

Excerpt: “The towns, especially Montréal (we have not yet seen Québec City) have a striking resemblance to our provincial towns. The bulk of the population and the overwhelming majority everywhere are French. But it is easy to see that the French are a conquered people. The rich classes mostly belong to the English race. Although French is almost universally spoken, most newspapers, posters, and even the shop signs of French merchants are in English. Almost all commercial businesses are in their hands. They are truly the ruling class in Canada. I doubt this will be the case for long. The clergy and many of the classes who are not rich, but educated, are French. They are beginning to keenly feel their secondary position.”

Alexis de Tocqueville. «Lettre du 25 août 1831.» Regards sur le Bas-Canada. Montréal, 2003. p. 156.