1749, Pehr Kalm, Swedish naturalist:

“Three kinds of boats are used.

  1. The birchbark canoe – made of sewn tree bark […].
  2. The canoe itself – consisting of a single, hollowed out tree trunk; I have already had occasion to describe it. Here it is made of white fir and of different sizes. They are not steered with oars but with a paddle, which means only half the force can be used compared to what is possible with oars; what’s more, a single man could go as fast with these as two wielding a paddle.
  3. Boats – which are always very big here – are used to transport heavy cargo; they are built with a flat bottom, and their keel is more commonly made of red oak than white oak, which withstands shipping accidents better than any other wood. The flanks are made of white fir; oak would make the boat too heavy.”

 Author: Excerpt of Pehr Kalm